This example is based on a fictitious data file (Factor.sta)
describing a study of life satisfaction. This data file is also analyzed
in the Example
section of Factor
Suppose that a questionnaire is administered to a random sample of 100
adults. The questionnaire contains 10 items that are designed to measure
satisfaction at work, satisfaction with hobbies (leisure time satisfaction),
satisfaction at home, and general satisfaction in other areas of life.
Responses to all questions are recorded via computer, and scaled so that
the mean for all items is approximately 100.
The results are entered into the Factor.sta
data file (see the partial listing shown below). Open this data file via
the File - Open Examples
menu; it is in the Datasets folder.
Purpose of Analysis.
Suppose that you want to learn about the relationship of work satisfaction
to satisfaction in other domains. Conceptually, you will treat the work
satisfaction items as the explanatory or independent variables, and the
other satisfaction items as the dependent variables.
From the Statistics - Multivariate
Exploratory Techniques menu, select Canonical Analysis to display the Canonical Analysis Startup Panel. Click
the Variables button on the Startup
Panel to display the Select variables for canonical analysis
dialog. Here, select all variables in this file and click the OK
button. The Startup Panel will now look like this:
Canonical correlation analysis is based on the correlation
matrix of variables. Therefore, the first step of the analysis is
to compute that correlation matrix (unless a Correlation
Matrix input file is specified via the Input
File drop-down box, in which case the input needs to be a correlation
matrix). Note that you can later select variables for the analysis (for
the two sets) from among those that are specified at this point.
Select the Review descriptive statistics
and correlation matrix check box in order to compute the detailed
descriptive statistics (i.e., means,
covariances) for the variables in the current analysis. Now, click the
OK button to display the Review Descriptive Statistics dialog.
Plots. In order to visualize
the distribution of the variables, two types of plots are available from
the Review Descriptive Statistics - Advanced
tab: Box & whisker plot of vars
and Matrix plot of correlations.
Click the Box & whisker plot of
vars button, select all variables in the data set in the resulting
selection dialog, and click the OK
button. The Box-Whisker Type dialog will then be displayed
in which you can select from four types of box and whisker plots (for
this example, select the Median/Quart./Range
option button and then click the OK
button). The central tendency (e.g., median)
and variability (e.g., quartile
and range) of the selected variables are displayed in these plots (note
that the specific method for computing the quartiles and the median can
be specified on the Options - General tab).
whisker plots are useful to determine if the distribution of a variable
is symmetrical. If the distribution is not symmetrical, then you may want
to view the histogram for the respective variable.
Now, click the Matrix plot of correlations
button (and select all of the variables in the variable selection dialog)
to display a matrix
of scatterplots. These plots should be examined for outliers,
which may greatly bias the computation of the correlation coefficients,
and thus the canonical analysis (see the discussion in the Introductory
Next, click the Means & standard
deviations button on the Review Descriptive Statistics - Advanced
tab to display a spreadsheet containing the means and standard deviations
of the selected variables. As in most other modules, the default plot
for the spreadsheet of means and standard deviations is the histogram
of the distribution of the respective variable. This histogram will show
curve superimposed over the observed distribution, to provide a visual
check for any violations of the normality assumption. For
example, to produce the histogram for variable Work_1,
right-click the Mean for variable
and then select Graphs of Input Data -
Histogram Work_1 - Normal Fit in the resulting shortcut menu
to produce the graph shown below.
The distribution of this variable (of subjects' responses to the first
item) follows the normal distribution. Thus, there is little reason to
suspect that this variable violates the normality assumption.
Specifying the Canonical
Analysis. To proceed with the canonical correlation analysis, click
the OK button to exit the Review
Descriptive Statistics dialog and display the Model Definition dialog in which you can
select the left and right set variables.
Specifying variables. To specify
variables for the two sets, click the Variables
for canonical analysis button
on the Model Definition - Quick tab to
open the standard variable
selection window. Select the work satisfaction items (i.e., variables
Work_2, and Work_3) in
the First variable list, and
the remaining satisfaction items (i.e., variables Hobby_1,
in the Second variable list.
Note that the designation of first and second list is arbitrary here;
that is, you could also select the work satisfaction items into the second
list and the remaining satisfaction items into the first list. In
a sense, canonical analysis is completely "symmetrical," that
is, it will compute the same statistics (loadings, weights, etc.) for
the variables in both lists.
You may also use some other options, such as the Means
& standard deviations or
Correlations buttons, as well as create some useful descriptive
graphs via the Model
Definition - Descriptives tab.
Reviewing Results. After specifying the two
lists of variables, you are now ready to begin the analysis. Click the
OK button on the Model Definition dialog. After a few moments,
Analysis Results dialog will be displayed.
The nature of most of the
statistics reported here in the results summary are reviewed in the Introductory
Overview section of this module. Therefore, the focus in this example
will be on the interpretation of the results.
Click the Summary:
Canonical results button on the Quick tab or the Canonical factors tab to display
the Canonical Analysis Summary
R. The overall canonical R is fairly substantial (.88),
and highly significant (p<
.001). Remember that the canonical
R reported here pertains to the first and most significant canonical root.
Thus, this value can be interpreted as the simple correlation between
the weighted sum scores in each set, with the weights pertaining to the
first (and most significant) canonical root.
Redundancy. The values in the rows labeled Variance
extracted and Total redundancy
give an indication of the magnitude of the overall correlations between
the two sets of variables, relative to the variance of the variables.
This is different from the canonical R-square, because the latter statistic
expresses the proportion of variance accounted for in the canonical variates
(see the Introductory
Overview for further details).
extracted. The values in the Variance
extracted row indicate the average amount of variance extracted
from the variables in the respective set by all canonical roots. Thus,
all three roots extract 100%
of the variance from the left set, that is, the three work satisfaction
items, and 54% of the variance
in the right set. Note that one of these values will always be 100% because
STATISTICA extracts as many roots
as the minimum number of variables in either set. Thus, for one set of
variables, there are as many independent sums (canonical variates) as
there are variables. Intuitively, it should be clear that, for example,
three independent sum scores derived from three variables will explain
100% of all variability.
The computation of the Total redundancy
is explained in the Introductory
Overview section. These values can be interpreted such that, based
on all canonical roots, given the right set of variables (the seven non-work
related satisfaction items), you can account for, on the average, 61.6% of the variance in the variables
in the left set (the satisfaction items). Likewise, you can account for
33.3% of the variance in the
non-work related satisfaction items, given the work related satisfaction
items. These results suggest a fairly strong overall relationship between
the items in the two sets.
the Significance of Canonical Roots. Now, check whether all three
canonical roots are significant. Keep in mind that the canonical R reported
in this spreadsheet represents only the first root, that is, the strongest
and most significant canonical correlation. To test the significance of
all canonical roots, click the Chi square
tests button on the Canonical
factors tab of the Canonical Analysis Results dialog. These
results will be displayed in Chi-Square
with Successive Roots Removed spreadsheet.
The maximum number of roots
that can be extracted is equal to the smallest number of variables in
either set. Since three work satisfaction items were selected into the
first set, STATISTICA would be
expected to extract three canonical roots.
The sequential significance
test works as follows. First, look at all three canonical variables together,
that is, without any roots removed. That test is highly significant. Next,
the first (and, as you know, most significant) root is "removed"
and the statistical significance of the remaining two roots is determined.
That test (in the second row of the spreadsheet) is not significant. You
can stop at this point and conclude that only the first canonical root
is statistically significant, and it should be examine further. If the
second test were also statistically significant, you would then proceed
to the third line of the spreadsheet to see whether the remaining third
canonical root is also significant.
Structure and Redundancy. You now know that you should consider
further only the first canonical root. How can this root be interpreted,
that is, how is it correlated with the variables in the two sets? As discussed
in the Introductory
Overview, the interpretation of canonical "factors" follows
a similar logic to that in Factor
Analysis. Specifically, you can compute the correlations between
the items in each set with the respective canonical root or variable (remember
that the canonical variable in each set is "created" as the
weighted sum of the variables). Those correlations are also called canonical
factor loadings or structure coefficients.
You can compute those values
(as well as the variance extracted for each set) via the Factor
structures & redundancies button of the Factor structures tab on the Canonical
Analysis Results dialog. Click this button to generate four results
spreadsheets; namely (1) Factor Structure,
left set, (2) Variance Extracted
(Proportions), left set, (3) Factor
Structure, right set, and (4) Variance
Extracted (Proportions), right set.
structure in the left set. First, examine the loadings for the
that only the first canonical root is statistically significant, and it
is the only one that should be interpreted. As you can see, the three
work satisfaction items show substantial loadings on the first canonical
factor, that is, they correlate highly with that factor.
As a measure of redundancy,
the average amount of variance accounted for in each item by the first
root could be computed. To do so, you could sum up the squared canonical
factor loadings and divide them by 3 (the number of variables in this
set). Click the Factor structures &
redundancies button on the Canonical Analysis Results - Factor structures
tab to obtain various spreadsheets. First, look at the Variance
Extracted (Proportions), left set results spreadsheet.
As you can see in this
spreadsheet, the first canonical root extracts an average of about 77% of the variance from the work satisfaction
items. If you multiply that value with the proportion of shared variance
between the canonical variates in the two sets (i.e., with R-square),
then the number in the Reddncy
column of the spreadsheet (i.e., redundancy) is obtained. Thus, given
the variables in the right set (the non-work related satisfaction items),
you can account for about 60%
of the variance in the work related satisfaction items, based on the first
structure in right set. In the Factor
Structure, right set spreadsheet, the first canonical root or factor
is marked by high loadings on the leisure satisfaction items (Hobby_1
The loadings are much lower
for the home-related satisfaction items. Therefore, you can conclude that
the significant canonical correlation between the variables in the two
sets (based on the first root) is probably the result of a relationship
between work satisfaction, and leisure time and general satisfaction.
If you consider work satisfaction as the explanatory variable, you could
say that work satisfaction affects leisure time and general satisfaction,
but not (or much less so) satisfaction with home life.
Extracted (Proportions), right set spreadsheet shows the redundancies
for the right set of variables.
As you can see, the first
canonical root accounts for an average of roughly
42% of variance in the variables in the right set; given the work
satisfaction items, you can account for about 33%
of the variance in the other satisfaction items, based on the first canonical
root. Note that these numbers are "pulled down" by the relative
lack of correlations between this canonical variate and the home satisfaction
Scores. Remember that the canonical variates represent weighted
sums of the variables in each set. You can review those weights by using
the Canonical Analysis Results - Canonical Scores
tab on the dialog.
Click the Left
& right set canonical weights button to display the following
The weights shown in the
Canonical Weights spreadsheets
pertain to the standardized (z-transformed) variables in the two sets.
You can use those weights to compute scores for the canonical variates.
The scores computed from the data in the current data file may be saved
via the Save canonical scores
button on the Canonical Analysis Results - Canonical Scores
canonical scores. Now, plot the canonical scores for the variables
in the left set against the scores for the variables in the right set.
Click the Scatterplot of canonical correlations
button on the Canonical Analysis Results - Factor structures
tab to display the Scatterplot of Canonical Correlations
dialog. To produce a scatterplot for the first (and only significant)
canonical variate, select Root 1
in the Left set box and Root 1 in the Right
Now, click the OK
button to produce the desired scatterplot. Note that in the illustration
shown below a linear regression line was added to the plot via the Plot: Fitting options pane of Graph
There are no outliers
apparent in this plot, nor do the residuals
around the regression line indicate any non-linear trend (e.g., by forming
a U or S around the regression line). Therefore, you can be satisfied
that no major violations of a main assumption of canonical correlation
analysis are evident.
of cases. Another interesting aspect of this plot is whether or
not there is any evidence of clustering of cases. Such clustering may
happen if the sample is somehow heterogeneous in nature. For example,
suppose respondents from two very different industries who are working
under very different conditions were included in the sample. It is conceivable
that the canonical correlation represented by the plot above could then
be the result of the fact that one group of respondents is generally more
satisfied with their work and leisure time (and life in general). If so,
this would be reflected in this plot by two distinct clusters of points:
one at the low ends of both axes and one at the high ends. However, in
this example, there is no evidence of any natural grouping of this kind,
and therefore you do not have to be concerned.
It can be concluded from the analysis of this (fictitious) dataset that
satisfaction at work affects leisure time satisfaction and general satisfaction.
Satisfaction with home life did not seem to be affected. In practice,
before generalizing these conclusions, you should replicate the study.
Specifically, you should ensure that the canonical factor structure that
led to the interpretation of the first canonical root is reliable (i.e.,