ARIMA - Identification

Number of parameters to be estimated. Before the estimation can begin, we need to decide on (identify) the specific number and type of ARIMA parameters to be estimated. The major tools used in the identification phase are plots of the series, correlograms of autocorrelation (ACF), and partial autocorrelation (PACF). The decision is not straightforward and in less typical cases requires not only experience but also a good deal of experimentation with alternative models (as well as the technical parameters of ARIMA). However, a majority of empirical time series patterns can be sufficiently approximated using one of the 5 basic models that can be identified based on the shape of the autocorrelogram (ACF) and partial autocorrelogram (PACF). The following brief summary is based on practical recommendations of Pankratz (1983); for additional practical advice, see also Hoff (1983), McCleary and Hay (1980), McDowall, McCleary, Meidinger, and Hay (1980), and Vandaele (1983). Also, note that since the number of parameters (to be estimated) of each kind is almost never greater than 2, it is often practical to try alternative models on the same data.

  1. One autoregressive (p) parameter: ACF - exponential decay; PACF - spike at lag 1, no correlation for other lags.

  2. Two autoregressive (p) parameters: ACF - a sine-wave shape pattern or a set of exponential decays; PACF - spikes at lags 1 and 2, no correlation for other lags.

  3. One moving average (q) parameter: ACF - spike at lag 1, no correlation for other lags; PACF - damps out exponentially.

  4. Two moving average (q) parameters: ACF - spikes at lags 1 and 2, no correlation for other lags; PACF - a sine-wave shape pattern or a set of exponential decays.

  5. One autoregressive (p) and one moving average (q) parameter: ACF - exponential decay starting at lag 1; PACF - exponential decay starting at lag 1.

Seasonal models. Multiplicative seasonal ARIMA is a generalization and extension of the method introduced in the previous paragraphs to series in which a pattern repeats seasonally over time. In addition to the non-seasonal parameters, seasonal parameters for a specified lag (established in the identification phase) need to be estimated. Analogous to the simple ARIMA parameters, these are: seasonal autoregressive (ps), seasonal differencing (ds), and seasonal moving average parameters (qs). For example, the model (0,1,2)(0,1,1) describes a model that includes no autoregressive parameters, 2 regular moving average parameters and 1 seasonal moving average parameter, and these parameters were computed for the series after it was differenced once with lag 1, and once seasonally differenced. The seasonal lag used for the seasonal parameters is usually determined during the identification phase and must be explicitly specified.

The general recommendations concerning the selection of parameters to be estimated (based on ACF and PACF) also apply to seasonal models (for an illustration of seasonal ARIMA, see the ARIMA Example. The main difference is that in seasonal series, ACF and PACF will show sizable coefficients at multiples of the seasonal lag (in addition to their overall patterns reflecting the non seasonal components of the series).