**Mardia's
multivariate kurtosis. **This* *index is defined as

(179)

where xi
is the *ith* vector of observations, is a vector of sample means, *p* is
the number of observed variables, and **S** is the sample covariance
matrix.

**Relative
multivariate kurtosis. **This index is defined as

(180)

**Normalized
multivariate kurtosis.**** **This index is defined as

(181)

**Mardia-based
kappa. **This index is defined as

(182)

**Mean
scaled univariate kurtosis. **This index is defined as

(183)

**Adjusted
mean scaled univariate kurtosis. **This index* *is defined
as

(184)

with

(185)